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Branched alcohols from renewable resources for reducing the MMP of C02-crude oil systems

Mohd Rashid, Emir Rashidi (2011) Branched alcohols from renewable resources for reducing the MMP of C02-crude oil systems. Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS. (Unpublished)

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Miscible displacement by carbon dioxide (C02) is a method to increase oil recovery. This technique is a very economical method in enhanced oil recovery (EOR), especially in C02-crude oil reservoir. It maintain reservoir pressure and also reduce oil viscosity. One of the most important parameters that should be known to utilise C02 miscible displacement is minimum miscibility pressure (MMP). MMP is the pressure at which C02 will achieve miscibility with the oil. Alcohol is well known as a co-surfactant in reducing interfacial tension (IFT) which is a direct parameter in reducing MMP. There are intensive researches on branched alcohol surfactants such as branched alcohol propoxylate sulphate. Branch alcohol may also reduce IFT better compare to straight chain alcohol surfactants. Yet, alcohol can only be used as the main IFT reducing agent if it can be produced cheaply. This paper focuses on synthesis of branched alcohol from Jatropha oil. However, due to the unavailability of reactant needed, final step of synthesizing branched alcohol cannot be done. But, the research is still continued with alkoxyl FAME since it shows potential for use as additives to reduce MMP due to alcohol branch attached. For the first step of synthesizing, transesterification of jatropha oil, 87% fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) yield was achieved. Next step of epoxidation FAME and alcohol addition to the epoxide FAME is done and expected to have 83.5% (Campanella, et al. 2008) and 100% (Smith. et al. 2009) conversion respectively. The effect of products on C02- crude oil MMP is then determined using Vanishing Interfacial Technique (VIT). The result shows MMP reduced to 1990 psia from 2240 psia when alkoxyl FAME Jatropha is mixed with Dulang crude oil at 60°C. Alkoxyl FAME Jatropha shows greater effect in reducing MMP compare to alkoxyl FAME Palm, 11.6% reduction compare to 4.46% reduction. Alkoxyl FAME Jatropha also shows better result compare to 2-methyl butan-2-ol in reducing MMP, 11.6% and 5.8% reduction respectively. This happened because alkoxyl FAME Jatropha mainly consists of highly branched alcohol FAME structures (65.86%) which result to higher polarity. This higher polarity affects the COz capacity to form interaction with the crude oil, thus lower the MMP. Meanwhile for alkoxyl FAME Palm, it mainly consists of FAME structures without alcohol branched (52.69%). And eventhough FAME structures with alcohol branched (47.31%) are present, it only mainly made up of single alcohol branched FAME. This make alkoxyl FAME Palm less in polarity. Therefore, the ability of alkoxyl FAME Palm to reduce MMP is lower than alkoxyl FAME Jatropha. For 2-methyl butan-2-ol, lower polarity compare to alkoxyl FAME Jatropha is resulted from lesser branched alcohol. As conclusion, alkoxyl FAME synthesized from Jatropha oil have the ability in reducing MMP for C02 - crude oil systems, and gives better result compare to alkoxyl FAME from Palm oil and 2- methyl butan-2-ol.

Item Type: Final Year Project
Academic Subject : Mission Oriented Research - Green Technologies - Biomass - Feasibility study - Emission studies - Bio fuel (transportation fuel, ethanol, diesel, gasoline, higher alcohol, biobutanol)
Subject: T Technology > T Technology (General)
Divisions: Geoscience and Petroleum Engineering
Depositing User: Users 2053 not found.
Date Deposited: 06 Nov 2013 10:56
Last Modified: 25 Jan 2017 09:42
URI: http://utpedia.utp.edu.my/id/eprint/10176

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