Welcome To UTPedia

We would like to introduce you, the new knowledge repository product called UTPedia. The UTP Electronic and Digital Intellectual Asset. It stores digitized version of thesis, final year project reports and past year examination questions.

Browse content of UTPedia using Year, Subject, Department and Author and Search for required document using Searching facilities included in UTPedia. UTPedia with full text are accessible for all registered users, whereas only the physical information and metadata can be retrieved by public users. UTPedia collaborating and connecting peoples with university’s intellectual works from anywhere.

Disclaimer - Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS shall not be liable for any loss or damage caused by the usage of any information obtained from this web site.Best viewed using Mozilla Firefox 3 or IE 7 with resolution 1024 x 768.

Characterization of Physicochemical Properties and Process Design for Oil Removal using Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. as a Natural Sorbent

Ur Rahmah, Anisa (2009) Characterization of Physicochemical Properties and Process Design for Oil Removal using Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn. as a Natural Sorbent. Masters thesis, UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI PETRONAS.

Download (8MB) | Preview


Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn (Kapok) is a natural sorbent that exhibits excellent hydrophobic-oleophilic characteristics. The physicochemical properties of kapok fibre as oil sorbent were characterized. The effect of packing density and the experimental oil types on the oil sorption characteristics of kapok were studied in a batch system. Oil sorption capacity, percentage of dynamic oil retention, oil entrapment stability, packing height reduction, saturation time and kapok reusability were evaluated. Continuous packed-bed column was developed to examine the optimum conditions, in terms of flow rates and packing density for the diesel-water filtration. Chloroform and alkali treatment were employed to investigate the stability of hollow structure and waxy layer on the kapok surface and their roles in oil sorption. Based on SEM, OM and FTIR analyses, kapok fibre was shown to be a lignocellulosic material with hydrophobic waxy coating that covered the hollow structures. The waxy coatings enhance the oil penetration inside the kapok structure and the presence of the hollow structure provide ample interstitial network for oil entrapment. Higher packing density showed lower sorption capacity, but higher percentage of dynamic oil retention, with 1% of oil drained out from the test cell at 0.08 g/cm3. The percentage of dynamic oil retention was in the decreasing order of: used engine oil, new engine oil and Diesel. At higher packing density and higher oil viscosities, kapok exhibited higher saturation but lower bed height reduction. Using diesel oil as the experimental liquid, only 30% of oil sorption capacity reduction was observed even after fifteen cycles of reuse at 0.04 g/cm3 packing density. Oil entrapment inside the packing was stable even after 30 min of shaking inside a horizontal shaker, with more than 90% of diesel and used-engine oil retained inside the assembly of 0.08 g/cm3 kapok. A packed-bed column was constructed to study the performance of kapok filter for oily water filtration. Statistical analyses suggest that none of the factors significantly affected the percentage of COD reduction, but the interaction between packing density and flow rate significantly affected the percentage of turbidity reduction. However, about 99% COD reductions were observed for all kapok filters at vi different packing densities and flow rate. About 97% turbidity reduction was observed for kapok at 0.08 g/cm3 and 0.5 L/h flow rate. The excellent turbidity reduction could be due to the stronger interaction of kapok with oil which can break down oil-water emulsion. After 8 hours of chloroform and alkali treatment, kapok fibres had lower oil sorption capacity, with 2.1 % and 26.3 % reduction, as compared to the raw kapok. SEM image analyses, in comparison to untreated kapok, showed no major structural difference after chloroform treatment, but major structural disruption to flattened-like structure was observed with alkali treatment. These results imply that kapok fibre had stable hollow structure and wax layer attachment on the kapok surface, and it takes extreme conditions as that employed with alkali treatment to make any significant changes. Based on these, the Malaysian kapok indeed has shown great potential as oil sorbent, in terms of high sorption and retention capacity, structural stability, high reusability and high COD and turbidity reduction capability.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Divisions: Engineering > Chemical
Depositing User: Users 5 not found.
Date Deposited: 05 Jun 2012 09:06
Last Modified: 25 Jan 2017 09:44
URI: http://utpedia.utp.edu.my/id/eprint/3007

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item

Document Downloads

More statistics for this item...