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SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CARBON AEROGELS FOR CHROMIUM ION REMOVAL

BESHIR MOHAMED, DHALLIA MAMOUN (2009) SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CARBON AEROGELS FOR CHROMIUM ION REMOVAL. Masters thesis, UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI PETRONAS.

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Abstract

Chromium is one of the heavy metals (HMs) that may cause lung cancer, irritation or damage to nose, throat, eyes and skin at high concentrations. One of the effective separation methods of HMs from aqueous solution is adsorption using carbon aerogels (CAs). These CAs are known to have the potential ability to remove HMs; but to date there is no documented scientific literature on justification, methodologies and practices of chromium removal. Since CAs specific to remove chromium are not commercially available, and CAs development is still in its infancy at the research stage, therefore it is of critical importance to synthesize these CAs before hand in order to satisfy the commercial needs. This is scientifically attainable since CAs work is well developed in many other applications, for instance in the fields of capacitors, insulators, and medical applications. In this work CAs were synthesized and characterized in order to obtain the best material for the removal of chromium. CAs development is influenced by many factors; one of the most important factors is the catalyst. Three types of catalyst were normally used to synthesis CAs namely sodium carbonate, sodium hydroxide, and acetic acid. In this work CAs were developed by stirring resorcinol, formaldehyde, and water with the selected catalysts. The solutions were then cured in an oven at 85±50C for three hours followed by supercritical drying, and finally carbonization at 8000C in inert environment. The materials were then characterized in order to understand the parameters affecting the sorption process using x-ray diffraction (XRD) for degree of crystallinity, scanning electron microscope (SEM) for porous surface morphology, nitrogen adsorption tests to obtain Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and pore size distribution, and Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscope for functional group. The results showed that the developed CAs have high surface area and they are porous, amorphous, and have a hydroxyl group which is known to strongly bind metal cations in aqueous solution. The sorption system was found to be affected by the sorbent dose, initial chromium concentration, and the pH of the solution. The kinetic data showed that the sorption viii capacity of the three types of carbon aerogels for the chromium increased with increasing initial chromium concentration, while a reverse trend was observed when the effect of sorbent dosage was studied. Analysis of the data obtained from the different sorption studies for the three types of carbon aerogels revealed that the data fitted better to the pseudo-second order model than the first order kinetic model. The results showed that the CA prepared by acetic acid has the highest removal percentage followed by those prepared using sodium hydroxide and finally sodium carbonate. The CAs removal performance was analyzed using two different known isotherm models for solid-liquid interference (Langmuir, and Freundlich). The highest values of linearity error (R2) were obtained when the experimental data were fitted into Langmuir model.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Subject: UNSPECIFIED
Divisions: Engineering > Chemical
Depositing User: Users 5 not found.
Date Deposited: 05 Jun 2012 09:19
Last Modified: 25 Jan 2017 09:44
URI: http://utpedia.utp.edu.my/id/eprint/3012

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