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Iron in Groundwater : Their Removal by Electrochemical Process using Aluminium Electrode

OTHMAN, MOHD HAFIDZI BIN (2012) Iron in Groundwater : Their Removal by Electrochemical Process using Aluminium Electrode. Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS.

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Neither iron nor manganese in water present a health hazard. However, their presence in water may cause taste, staining, and accumulation problems. Because iron and manganese are chemically similar, they cause similar problems. Iron will cause reddish-brown staining of laundry, porcelain, dishes, utensils, and even glassware. Manganese acts in a similar way but causes a brownish-black stain. Soaps and detergents do not remove these stains, and the use of chlorine bleach and alkaline builders (such as sodium carbonate) can actually intensify the stains. Iron and manganese deposits will build up in pipelines, pressure tanks, water heaters, and water softeners. This reduces the available quantity and pressure of the water supply. Iron and manganese accumulations become an economic problem when water supply or softening equipment must be replaced. There are also associated increased energy costs, like pumping water through constricted pipes or heating water with heating rods coated with iron or manganese minerals. Iron and manganese are concentrated in water by contact with rocks and minerals, and occasionally man-made materials like iron and steel pipes. It is usually groundwater supplies that may require treatment for high levels of iron and manganese. Generally speaking, few surface water supplies have high enough levels of either to cause problems. Occasionally discharge of acid industrial wastes or mine drainage may increase iron or manganese to problem levels in surface water. The objective of this experiment is to find an optimum condition of removing iron from groundwater by electrochemical process using aluminium electrodes. The desired concentration of iron is below than 0.3 mg/L.

Item Type: Final Year Project
Subject: T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
Divisions: Engineering > Civil
Depositing User: Users 1278 not found.
Date Deposited: 28 Sep 2012 14:56
Last Modified: 25 Jan 2017 09:40
URI: http://utpedia.utp.edu.my/id/eprint/3677

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