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Production and Characterization of Biodiesel from Palm Oil using Heterogeneous Catalyst

Mohd Firdaus Bin Mustafa, Mohd Firdaus (2011) Production and Characterization of Biodiesel from Palm Oil using Heterogeneous Catalyst. Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Sri Iskandar,Tronoh,Perak. (Unpublished)

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Abstract

Biodiesel is an alternative to petroleum-based conventional diesel fuel and is defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils and animal fats. There are so many examples of raw materials that have been used to prepare biodiesel such as canola (rapeseed), cotton seed, palm, peanut, soybean, sunflower oils and variety of less common oils. In this research, palm oil has been used to observe the potential feedstock for biodiesel. Biodiesel was obtained by a standard transesterification procedure with methanol and an alkali catalyst at 65°C and alcohol/oil ratio of 9:1 for catalysts screening before proceed to RSM (Response Surface Methodology) for choosing the catalyst that can give maximum yield production. Then, methanolysis of palm oil was optimized using RSM with lead (II) oxide (PbO) as a catalyst. Three process variables were evaluated at two levels: methanol/oil molar ratio (6:1 – 9:1), catalyst concentration in relation to oil mass (2%-4%) and reaction time (1 – 3 hours). RSM has been used to get the quadratic polynomial equation for predicting transesterification by employing multiple regression analysis. The result shows that catalyst concentration and was important factors that affect the yield of POMEs (palm oil methyl esters)/biodiesel. The RSM methodology was used to obtain methyl esters yield (93.8%) was found at following conditions; 9:1 methanol-to-oil ratio, 3% catalyst concentration and 2 hours reaction time. There was also a linear correlation between observed and predicted values. The result of GC/MS (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry) was shown two major components of FAMEs (fatty acid methyl esters) which are palmitic and oleic acid in biodiesel produced. Determination of other fuel properties of biodiesel derived from palm oil such as cloud point, kinematic viscosity and oxidative stability were based on standards such as ASTM D6751 and EU 14214 have been work on and the result have satisfy the standards.

Item Type: Final Year Project
Subject: T Technology > TP Chemical technology
Divisions: ?? sch_che ??
Depositing User: Users 5 not found.
Date Deposited: 11 Jan 2012 12:23
Last Modified: 19 Jan 2017 15:45
URI: http://utpedia.utp.edu.my/id/eprint/443

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