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Integration of the Vegetable Oil Extraction and Biodiesel Production Processes

Azizan, Mohammad Tazli (2005) Integration of the Vegetable Oil Extraction and Biodiesel Production Processes. Masters thesis, UNIVERSITY OF NEWCASTLE UPON TYNE School.

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Abstract

iodiesel is a sustainable, low polluting fuel which can replace current diesel fossil fuel without changing the design of the combustion engine. With an aim to counteract the global warming, an integrated and intensified way of producing biodiesel needs to be introduced. Transesterification is a common method to produce biodiesel through reaction of alcohol (typically methanol and ethanol) with vegetable oil in the presence of catalyst. Vegetable oil is extracted from raw materials such as rapeseeds, soybeans or sunflowers and then refined before reaction takes place. This method however would incur high cost of production due to expensive feedstock and hence a shortcut way was investigated by introducing in-situ transesterification method, which eliminates refining stages. By using rapeseeds at specified amounts, different type of alcohols, different type and strength of catalysts and varied ratios of alcohol to hexane (vol% ), biodiesel was successfully produced using in-situ method. This method was feasible to produce high degree of conversion and large amount of biodiesel and therefore has high probability to be commercialised. The highest conversion achieved was 92%, with approximately 11.2 g of biodiesel was yielded through combination of 0.1 m sodium hydroxide in methanol and 30g of rapeseeds Re-extraction was carried out to investigate the theory that small amount of alcohol will not produce biodiesel because it will be adsorbed by the rapeseeds. This was disproved since there was no methanol recovered during re-extraction. Instead, biodiesel was adsorbed on the surface and inside the seeds. Emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) is a way to allow hexane extract the triglycerides and methanol would react with the triglycerides extracted once the emulsions break up. However, the creation was a failure. Finally, time study was carried out to investigate the biodiesel production within specified duration. Higher degree of conversion and large yield were expected for longer period of extraction and reaction. Thin layer chromatography was used to give qualitative and quantitative analysis, via image analysis software.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Academic Subject : Academic Department - Chemical Engineering - Material Development
Subject: Q Science > QD Chemistry
Divisions: Engineering > Chemical
Depositing User: Users 2053 not found.
Date Deposited: 27 Sep 2013 11:01
Last Modified: 25 Jan 2017 09:46
URI: http://utpedia.utp.edu.my/id/eprint/6931

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