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Production of Activated Carbon from Waste Palm Oil Shells and Its Adsorption Characteristics on Copper (II)

Ch'ng , Mei Ling (2004) Production of Activated Carbon from Waste Palm Oil Shells and Its Adsorption Characteristics on Copper (II). Universiti Teknologi Petronas. (Unpublished)

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Abstract

The alarming problems of high concentration industrial effluents in the wastewater had awakened the world to the development of the techniques for the removal of these effluents from wastewater. Present of heavy metal such as copper in wastewater especially from plating and semiconductor industries can directly influence human health by impairing mental and neurological functions of the body system. Adsorption has demonstrated efficiency and economic feasibility as a wastewater treatment operation by using activated carbon due to its well-developed porous structure and tremendous surface area. The production of activated carbon from waste palm oil shell via chemical activation and carbonization were done. Various parameters that might affect the adsorption capacities of copper (II) in wastewater for the produced activated carbon were studied. These parameters included the activation agent (H2S04, ZnCl2, CaCl2 and NaOH), carbonization time (1 hr and 3 hrs), carbonization temperature (400°C and 500"C), particle sizes of the raw material (<lmm, l-2mm and >2mm) and the preparation sequences (sequences of carbonization and activation). In addition to that, the effects of different wastewater conditions included the pH of the wastewater solution and the metal concentrations in the wastewater were investigated. The results showed that the best activation agent for production of high quality adsorbent was NaOH and then followed by the sequence H2SO4 > ZnCl2 > CaCl2 whereas the best adsorption capacity of copper ion from wastewater was the activated carbon produced from particle size < 1mm and then followed by particle size 1 - 2 mm and > 2mm. The maximum adsorption capacity for the activated carbon produced from NaOH activation at particle size < 1mm was the highest among others, 196.06mg/g. The activated carbon produced at 3 hr had shown a higher adsorption capacity then produced at 1 hr. Besides, the higher the carbonization temperature, the better the adsorption capacity will be for that activated carbon. The results also showed that activated carbon prepared by carbonization first and then activation had a better adsorption capacity. From the adsorption study, it can be concluded that the best conditions of industrial wastewater for removal of copper ions were at pH 10 and lOppm. The adsorption data for the carbons produced obeyed Langmuir Isotherm at which the maximum adsorption capacity was 126.58 mg/g for activated carbon activated by H2S04 at < 1mm and 93.46 mg/g for the particle size l-2mm.

Item Type: Final Year Project
Academic Subject : Academic Department - Chemical Engineering - Process Safety
Subject: T Technology > TP Chemical technology
Divisions: Engineering > Chemical
Depositing User: Users 2053 not found.
Date Deposited: 30 Sep 2013 16:55
Last Modified: 25 Jan 2017 09:46
URI: http://utpedia.utp.edu.my/id/eprint/7574

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