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This thesis describes the development of chemically amplified resists for electron beam lithography. The techniques and concepts oflithography are discussed and the motivations for the development of chemically amplified resists are examined. The experimental techniques used in this work are then described. Two groups of resists, derivatives of fullerene and derivatives of triphenylene, were tested for chemical amplification and the results obtained from the research are presented. A systematic study of the response of several methanofullerenes and polysubstituted triphenylene derivatives before and after chemical amplification is presented. Films of the compounds were prepared by dissolving the resists in solvents such as chloroform and adding to the solution various concentrations of certain photoacid generators and crosslinkers, and spin coating the mixture on hydrogen terminated silicon wafers. The films were irradiated using 20 keY electrons. Post exposure bakes between 90 to 120 'C for 30 to 180 s were applied to the resists before development with non-polar solvents such as monochlorobenzene. Most of the chemically amplified resists showed sensitivity enhancement compared to their pure counterparts. Fullerene derivative, 3' H-cyclopropa [I, 9, 5, 6] fullerene-C60-Ih - 3', 3'- carboxylic [ 2-2-(2-hydroxyethoxy) ethoxyl ethyl] ester (a mixture of adducts) demonstrated the highest sensitivity enhancement with the incorporation of an epoxy novolac crosslinker and bis[4-di(phenylsulfonio) phenyl]sulfide bis(hexafluorophoshate) as photoacid generator with a sensitivity of -8 ~Clem' and a resolution of -24 nm. The polysubstituted triphenylene derivative, 2,6,10-trihydroxy-3,7,11- tri(pentyloxy) triphenylene, showed a sensitivity of -5 ~Clem' when the crosslinker hexamethoxymethylmelamine and the photoacid generator triphenylsulfonium triflate were added to the compound. However, fine patterning in the resist was not very successful due to acid diffusion. An alternative triphenylene derivative similar to 2,6, 1 0-trihydroxy-3,7, 11- tri(pentyloxy) triphenylene, with epoxides incorporated into the structure showed better results with the photoinitiator bis[ 4-di(pheny lsulfonio) phenyl]sulfide bis(hexa fluorophoshate). The chemically amplified C51epoxide demonstrated a sensitivity of ~9 f..!C/cm2 and a resolution of 40 nm. The etch durabilities of these chemically amplified resists for dry plasma etching with SF6 are reasonably high, comparable to a conventional high durability novolac resist.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
Academic Subject : Academic Department - Chemical Engineering - Advance Process Control
Subject: T Technology > TP Chemical technology
Depositing User: Users 2053 not found.
Date Deposited: 30 Sep 2013 16:55
Last Modified: 25 Jan 2017 09:46
URI: http://utpedia.utp.edu.my/id/eprint/8048

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