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Removal of Hardness Using Ground Water Treatment Plant Sludge

Abd Rahim, Ahmad Fitri (2011) Removal of Hardness Using Ground Water Treatment Plant Sludge. Universiti Teknologi Petronas. (Unpublished)

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One of the undesirable characteristics of some water sources is hardness, that can cause many problems including scaling and excessive soap consumption. Therefore several treatment processes have been introduced to remove or reduce the hardness from hard waters. One of the new innovations in this regard is using Ground Water Treatment Plant Sludge by precipitation. Hardness can be removed from hard waters by precipitation of calcium and magnesium. In the cement factory at Tasek, Ipoh, hard water is mostly found in the water recycling treatment where is the source of water is from pond, surrounded by limestone hills. A treatment process which is using Ground Water Treatment Plant Sludge (GWTPS) was conducted in replicate to observe the changes in parameters such as total hardness, calcium hardness, magnesium hardness and pH with varying dosages of GWTPS. A GWTPS dosage range of 500 - 5000 mg!L was chosen for the experiments. Results indicated that the removal of calcium can be achieved to 96% with the dosage of 5000 mg/L by precepitation at pH 9. For instance, GWTPS is not feasible to remove magnesium hardness. Since only calcium is successfuly removed, the total hardness is still in the high range. By comparing to the result of jar test, the soda-ash dosage of 5 ml (5000 mg!L concentration) is the optimum dosage to precipitates CaC03 and Mg(OH)2 at pH 13 and 12 respectively. The removal of calcium and magnesium by chemical precipitation in jar test is about 69% and 90% respectively

Item Type: Final Year Project
Academic Subject : Academic Department - Civil Engineering - Water and environment - Environmental - Wastewater treatment
Subject: T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
Divisions: Engineering > Civil
Depositing User: Users 2053 not found.
Date Deposited: 09 Oct 2013 11:07
Last Modified: 25 Jan 2017 09:42
URI: http://utpedia.utp.edu.my/id/eprint/8363

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