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Quantitative Risk Assessment for Accidental Release of Ammonia from Fertilizer Process Plant

Mohd Husin, Izwan Shahmin (2004) Quantitative Risk Assessment for Accidental Release of Ammonia from Fertilizer Process Plant. Universiti Teknologi Petronas. (Unpublished)

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Abstract

Quantitative risk assessment is currently popular in the industrial sector over the past fifteen years. The application of Quantitative Risk Analysis for this study is to achieve several objectives that are, to determine the risk of an existing of an ammonia process plant, to ascertain the effects of accidental release of ammonia at different concentration and to propose risk reduction measure during design or operation stage. The subject of this study is PETRONAS Fertilizer Kedah (PFK) that has experienced on accidental release of ammonia. This study is focused on the toxicology and explosion aspects. The methodology for this study was literature survey and using SAFETI (Software for Assessment of Flammable, Explosive and Toxic Impacts) with real plant data. SAFETI is the main tool and has wide function for risk/consequence/risk and consequence studies. As for this study, the risk analysis was run through a combination of several data (plant layout and location, ammonia and methane properties, and atmospheric parameter) and manipulated with assists of SAFETI in achieving the objectives. After defining the boundaries of the system to be analyzed, this study identifies the hazards, risk level and suggest with mitigation action. Based on the frequency of accidental events, the model of consequence will be analyzed. From Societal Risk FN Curve, the case is lies in the alert region. Therefore, there is requirement of Quantitative Risk Analysis. The highest risk level is IE-5 per year for 0.7 km distance from the hazard source and the lowest risk level is lE-9 per year for 2.5 km distance from the hazard source. Generally, in dispersion graphs of ammonia, as the downwind distance increases the centerline concentration are decreases. For 2 inches and 3 inches leak diameter, there is unique trend where the centerline concentration increases back after a several period due to vaporization of spill. In probability of fatality graph of ammonia for four weather conditions, the probability of fatality decreases with the increasing downwind distance. Weather I is the worst case since the probability of fatality is the highest and reach the furthest distance than other weather condition. For explosion, the dispersion graph of methane show similar trends as ammonia dispersion graph. However the cloud radius only 16.3 m and the BLEVE radius is 29.81 m. Mitigation actions are proposed to lessen the risk. By inherent safety, the mitigation actions are to use small amount of ammonia and methane, to produce and consume the substance in-situ, and to reduce the process pressure and temperature to less hazardous condition. By engineering design, the mitigation action is to locate a dike at 0.52 m from the hazard sources. By emergency response, the mitigation action is to develop an emergency plan on how fast people should react. A few recommendations can be made for this study which is, to study the alternative to use lower energy material, to analyze the possibility of unusual wind condition, and to study the toxicology of long term effects to the agriculture activities and products.

Item Type: Final Year Project
Academic Subject : Academic Department - Chemical Engineering - Process Safety
Subject: T Technology > TP Chemical technology
Divisions: Engineering > Chemical
Depositing User: Users 2053 not found.
Date Deposited: 09 Oct 2013 11:08
Last Modified: 25 Jan 2017 09:46
URI: http://utpedia.utp.edu.my/id/eprint/8662

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