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Flammability Limits Study ofVapour Mixtures above Crude Oil at Low Temperatures

Sitiol, DebbieAloysius (2012) Flammability Limits Study ofVapour Mixtures above Crude Oil at Low Temperatures. Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS. (Unpublished)

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Study of fire and explosion is very important mainly in oil and gas industries due to the severity of fire and explosion incidents. Fire and explosion could cause property damage and loss of lives. In this work, investigation had been carried out on the flammability of crude oil at low temperatures 35°C, 40°C and 50°C. Hydrocarbon components derived from refinery storage was assessed. The oil-liquid phase was analyzed using Headspace-Gas Chromatography (HS-GC) and Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) to examine the composition of the sample. Hydrocarbon compounds ranging from C6 to C9 were detected. Lower Flammability Limits (LFLs) and Upper Flammability Limits (UFLs) for individual components were calculated at each temperature using stoichiometric concentration method proposed by Zabetakis et. al. Flammability limits of the mixture, LFLmiX and UFLn^ were calculated using the Le Chatelier equation. Limiting Oxygen Concentration (LOCs) for each temperature are calculated using Hansen and Crowl method, while the estimation ofLOC for the mixtures (LOC„ux) is calculated using Zlowchower and Green method. Flammability diagramwas constructed which is used to determinethe flammability of the mixture at respective temperature. It is found that as the temperature increases, the flammability range of vapours above crude oil increases too. The findings of this studymay assist in minimizing fire hazards associated with presence ofhydrocarbon vapours.

Item Type: Final Year Project
Academic Subject : Academic Department - Chemical Engineering - Process Safety
Subject: T Technology > TP Chemical technology
Divisions: Engineering > Chemical
Depositing User: Users 2053 not found.
Date Deposited: 24 Oct 2013 14:42
Last Modified: 25 Jan 2017 09:41
URI: http://utpedia.utp.edu.my/id/eprint/9654

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