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A Study Of Nickel And Cadmium Adsorption Using Granulated Charcoal Activated Carbon (Gcac)

Nurul Syafiqin Binti Mohamad Shah, Nurul Syafiqin (2010) A Study Of Nickel And Cadmium Adsorption Using Granulated Charcoal Activated Carbon (Gcac). Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Seri Iskandar,Tronoh,Perak. (Unpublished)

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Abstract

Waste stream coming from industries which reaches water resources and soil is spotted containing various contaminants such as heavy metals. This phenomenon is potentially hazard to human and the environment as the metals not degrade into harmless end products and tend to accumulate in living organisms, causing various diseases and disorders. Adsorption is one of the methods for removing heavy metals from contaminated effluents and the most effective among all. The present study was undertaken to investigate ability of granulated charcoal activated carbon (GCAC) as an adsorbent in adsorption process of removing nickel and cadmium ions from aqueous solutions. The analyses of heavy metal removal are performed on three operational parameters which are initial ion concentration, pH and agitation time. The experiments were carried out at room temperature (25oC) and metal solutions were agitated on a rotary shaker at constant speed of 240 rpm. BET surface area of GCAC was found to be 898 m²/g. Batch adsorption test showed that the nickel and cadmium uptake increase as agitation time increase. As initial metal ion concentration increase, nickel adsorption percentage decrease and cadmium adsorption percentage increase. Nickel adsorption percentage decreased as the nickel ion concentration increases, the higher energy sites are saturated and adsorption begins on lower energy sites, resulting in decreases in the adsorption efficiency.Cadmium adsorption percentage increase due to the increase in the driving force of the concentration gradient produced by the increase in the initial cadmium concentration. The equilibrium time for both metals uptake were 120 minutes and optimum initial metal concentration were 100 mg/L and 5 mg/L for cadmium and nickel, respectively. Adsorption was found to be low at acidic pH and kept increasing as pH increased. The highest cadmium and metal adsorptions were achieved at pH 10. At low pH, solution has high concentration of H+ ions compared to high pH solution as it is acidic. Presence of high H+ ions in metal solutions created great competition between H+ ions and Cd2+ ions for vacant adsorption sites of adsorbent. The competitive adsorption results in low metal uptake by GCAC. The equilibrium data fitted is more well fitted to Freundlich isotherm as the R-squared value of Freundlich were higher than Langmuir’s which were 0.995 and 0.98 for nickel and cadmium, respectively. This indicates that the cadmium and nickel adsorption are multilayer adsorption on the GCAC surface.

Item Type: Final Year Project
Subject: T Technology > TP Chemical technology
Divisions: Engineering > Chemical
Depositing User: Users 5 not found.
Date Deposited: 03 Nov 2011 11:23
Last Modified: 25 Jan 2017 09:43
URI: http://utpedia.utp.edu.my/id/eprint/1184

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