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CHARACTERIZATION AND ELECTROCHEMICAL PERFORMANCE OF MESOPOROUS TIN PHOSPHATE BASED ANODE FOR LITHIUM-ION CELLS

HASANALY, SITI MUNIRAH HASANALY (2010) CHARACTERIZATION AND ELECTROCHEMICAL PERFORMANCE OF MESOPOROUS TIN PHOSPHATE BASED ANODE FOR LITHIUM-ION CELLS. Masters thesis, UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI PETRONAS.

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Abstract

The growth in demand for extra power in rechargeable batteries has encouraged intense research to develop new materials with even higher capacities. The main focus of this work is to investigate the electrochemical characteristics of mesoporous tin phosphate as alternative anode host material for Li-ion batteries. Mesoporous tin phosphate was synthesized based on a surfactant templating method, where an anionic surfactant, sodium dodecyl sulfate, was used as the structure directing agent and tin (IV) chloride (SnCl4) as the inorganic source. The synthesized powder was characterized by means of thermal, X-ray diffraction (XRD), nitrogen gas sorption and scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) techniques. The surfactant synthesized tin phosphate (SnP2O7) calcined from 200-400°C exhibited amorphous, mesoporous characteristics. Average pore size distribution obtained for the mesoporous SnP2O7 was around 10-18 nm. The electrochemical behaviour of the synthesized tin phosphate anode was studied using a combination of electrochemical analysis from cyclic voltammogram and differential capacity plots. The mesoporous SnP2O7 anode exhibited electrochemical reactions with lithium within the potential range of 0-2 V vs. Li+/Li as indicated by cyclic voltammetry analysis. These reactions consist of the irreversible reaction to form lithium phosphate matrix phases and the reversible reaction of lithium insertion and extraction upon subsequent charging and discharging. The formation of the irreversible lithium phosphate phase leads to substantial losses of more than 50% in lithium ion storage capacity upon the first discharge cycle. The mesoporous SnP2O7 anodes performed averagely better in terms of delivering higher discharge capacity when compared to that of the non-mesoporos SnP2O7 anodes. A narrower cutoff operating voltage range within 0-1.2 V exhibited better galvanostatic cycling performance of the mesoporous SnP2O7 calcined at 400°C for 2 hours. This anode delivered a reversible discharge capacity (lithium ion storage capacity) of 780 mAh/g upon the second cycle and retained 134 mAh/g upon the fiftieth cycle. The mesoporous structure helps to absorb some volume change of the viii tin particles during lithium alloying and de-alloying process thus improving cyclability.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Subject: UNSPECIFIED
Divisions: Engineering > Chemical
Depositing User: Users 5 not found.
Date Deposited: 05 Jun 2012 08:28
Last Modified: 25 Jan 2017 09:43
URI: http://utpedia.utp.edu.my/id/eprint/2824

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